If you don't remember your password, you can reset it by entering your email address and clicking the Reset Password button. You will then receive an email that contains a secure link for resetting your password
If the address matches a valid account an email will be sent to __email__ with instructions for resetting your password
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanDepartment of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Dental College, Ichikawa General Hospital, Chiba, Japan
Although EUS-guided FNA is useful for preoperative diagnosis, small biopsy specimens make diagnosis difficult. In some cases, surgery has been performed for diagnosis. Here, we report a case in which endoscopic papillectomy (EP) was used as a diagnostic modality. Informed consent was obtained from the patient to publish his case.
An asymptomatic 37-year-old man presented with a subepithelial tumor with ampullary involvement, expressing his desire to undergo endoscopic treatment. Histologic examination of a specimen from tunnel biopsy performed in the previous hospital revealed signs of neuroendocrine tumor. CT findings showed uneven contrast material within the tumor (Fig. 1A). Moreover, EUS revealed no infiltration of the duodenal muscle, bile duct, or pancreatic duct by the tumor (Fig. 1B). Thus, we presumed that the tumor was resectable by EP and could aid in establishing the histologic diagnosis and definitive treatment (Video 1, available online at www.VideoGIE.org).
For EP, a side-viewing endoscope, JF260V (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan), was inserted into the second portion of the duodenum. Thereafter, a 15-mm snare (spiral snare forceps; Olympus) was slowly opened from the oral to the caudal side of the tumor (Fig. 2). The whole tumor was tightly captured and resected (120 W, effect 3, Endocut mode).
During resection of the tumor, the patient’s blood pressure suddenly became unstable owing to bradycardia without bleeding. Resection of the tumor with catecholamine function might have led to cardiogenic hypotension (blood pressure suddenly dropped from 129/64 mm Hg to 69/60 mm Hg). An intravenous fluid challenge was administered along with noradrenalin, and his blood pressure immediately recovered to a normal level (100/50 mm Hg).
Thereafter, a 5F pancreatic stent (5F 7-cm Advanix; Boston Scientific, Tokyo, Japan) was inserted into the main pancreatic duct, and endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed for the bile duct (Clevercut; Olympus). Finally, the mucosal defect was closed with hemoclips (Resolution; Boston Scientific) according to the technique described in a previous report (Fig. 3).
The patient was discharged 7 days after EP without any adverse events. Histologic examination revealed typical GP. No recurrence was found after 3 years of follow-up with the use of EUS and enhanced CT (Fig. 4).
reported a case of severe hypertension during EUS-FNA for GP. GP has the potential to secrete catecholamines, similarly to pheochromocytoma. When pheochromocytoma is resected very carefully, intraoperative monitoring and preoperative assessment are required in case hemodynamic instability occurs.
However, we suspected before resection that this tumor was not a GP, but a neuroendocrine tumor, because of the similar features of the 2 conditions on imaging. However, the patient did not report any history of hypertension or hyperglycemia. If we had known the histopathologic diagnosis before the procedure, we could have tested the blood for catecholamines indicative of a functional pheochromocytoma, and accordingly prepared the anesthesiologist for the possibility of intraoperative cardiogenic shock. Moreover, preoperative administration of α- and β-adrenergic blockers might be effective to achieve hemodynamic stability.