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Endoscopic tamponade using a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent for massive biliary bleeding from a pseudoaneurysm rupture during metallic stent removal

Open AccessPublished:September 30, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vgie.2020.08.009

      Abbreviations:

      CT (computed tomography), SEMS (self-expandable metallic stent), TAE (transcatheter arterial embolization)
      Hemobilia is a rare but life-threatening adverse event related to pancreatobiliary diseases, transhepatic percutaneous intervention, or endoscopic procedures including ERCP and interventional EUS.
      • Tien T.
      • Tan Y.C.
      • Baptiste P.
      • et al.
      Haemobilia in a previously stented hilar cholangiocarcinoma: successful haemostasis after the insertion of fcSEMS.
      ,
      • Nezu Y.
      • Nakaji S.
      • Fujii H.
      • et al.
      Pseudoaneurysm caused by a self-expandable metal stent: a report of three cases.
      The rupture of the pseudoaneurysm after plastic stent or self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion has been reported to induce massive hemobilia, which requires prompt transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for hemostasis.
      • Nezu Y.
      • Nakaji S.
      • Fujii H.
      • et al.
      Pseudoaneurysm caused by a self-expandable metal stent: a report of three cases.
      ,
      • Satoh T.
      • Matsubayashi H.
      • Ishiwatari H.
      • et al.
      Rupture of pseudoaneurysm after biliary metallic stent placement.
      In addition, hemobilia has occurred after plastic stent removal, according to several previous reports.
      • Tsuji S.
      • Itoi T.
      • Sofuni A.
      • et al.
      Life-threatening hemorrhage from the papilla following stent removal (with video).
      • Tonozuka R.
      • Itoi T.
      • Sofuni A.
      • et al.
      Hemostasis using a fully covered self-expandable metal stent for marked bleeding from the bile duct following stent removal (with videos).
      • Goenka M.K.
      • Harwani Y.
      • Rai V.
      • et al.
      Fully covered self-expandable metal biliary stent for hemobilia caused by portal biliopathy.
      • So H.
      • Song T.J.
      • Lee D.
      • et al.
      Endoscopic treatment of recurrent bleeding from a portobiliary fistula with a fully covered self-expandable metal stent.
      • Miyamoto H.
      • Tanaka K.
      • Nakamura F.
      • et al.
      Massive hemobilia following plastic stent removal in common bile duct cancer associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (with video).
      However, hemobilia after SEMS removal is extremely rare.
      • Layec S.
      • D’Halluin P.N.
      • Pagenault M.
      • et al.
      Massive hemobilia during extraction of a covered self-expandable metal stent in a patient with portal hypertensive biliopathy.
      A 65-year-old woman with advanced pancreatic head cancer was referred to our hospital. She had received chemotherapy after placement of a fully covered SEMS (10-mm diameter, 8-cm long; Hanarostent, MI Tech, Seoul, Korea) in the bile duct and a plastic stent in the gallbladder for concomitant biliary obstruction and cholecystitis (Fig. 1A). Three months later, cholangitis recurred because of SEMS dysfunction and disease progression without biliary bleeding or a pseudoaneurysm being detected on CT. ERCP was performed to resolve cholangitis, and an 8.5F plastic stent was inserted into the SEMS (Fig. 1B). Two weeks later, a reintervention was performed to sweep biliary sludge and/or exchange the SEMS by using a side-viewing endoscope (TJF-260V; Olympus Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan).
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Figure 1A, Abdominal CT shows a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS, arrowhead) in the bile duct and a plastic stent (arrow) in the gallbladder. No biliary bleeding or pseudoaneurysm was observed. B, The endoscopic view shows SEMS occlusion by biliary sludge. We inserted an 8.5F plastic stent into the SEMS to resolve cholangitis.
      On removal of the previous plastic stent, a large amount of debris was observed in the SEMS. Therefore, SEMS removal and reinsertion for longer stent patency were planned. After successful extraction of the SEMS by using a snare through the endoscope, massive bleeding from the biliary tract was suddenly exacerbated (Video 1, available online at www.giejournal.org). Despite difficulty in identifying the papillary orifice because of massive bleeding, biliary cannulation and confirmation of confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts by cholangiography were successfully achieved.
      Continuous fresh blood spurting from the papilla resulted in hemodynamic and respiratory instability (hypotension with systolic pressure <80 mm Hg, heart rate >140/min, and SpO2 <80%) within a few minutes. A radiologist was consulted for an emergent TAE, and we simultaneously attempted to insert a 10-mm-diameter SEMS (8-cm long, Bonastent; Medico’s Hirata, Tokyo, Japan) for tamponade. After deploying the distal end of the SEMS under fluoroscopic guidance, biliary bleeding gradually slowed on the endoscopic view, followed by resolution of hypotension and tachycardia.
      The CT scan performed immediately after the endoscopic procedures revealed a 2-cm pseudoaneurysm in the pancreatic tumor; this was adjacent to the SEMS and was not evident on CT 2 weeks earlier (Fig. 2A and B). Subsequently, angiography and TAE were successfully performed for the pseudoaneurysm (Fig. 3A and B), and the patient had no recurrence of biliary bleeding.
      Figure thumbnail gr2
      Figure 2A, The CT shows a 2-cm pseudoaneurysm (arrow) arising from a branch of gastroduodenal or proper hepatic arteries and located in a tumor of the pancreas that was not evident 2 weeks earlier. B, The pseudoaneurysm was just adjacent to the biliary self-expandable metallic stent.
      Figure thumbnail gr3
      Figure 3Angiography showing a pseudoaneurysm (arrowhead) of the gastroduodenal artery (A), which was successfully treated with coil embolization (B).
      Although previous reports have described endoscopic or radiological intervention for hemobilia, the criterion standard treatment has not yet been established.
      • Satoh T.
      • Matsubayashi H.
      • Ishiwatari H.
      • et al.
      Rupture of pseudoaneurysm after biliary metallic stent placement.
      ,
      • So H.
      • Song T.J.
      • Lee D.
      • et al.
      Endoscopic treatment of recurrent bleeding from a portobiliary fistula with a fully covered self-expandable metal stent.
      Hemobilias with successful hemostasis using SEMS were mainly due to portobiliary fistula.
      • Goenka M.K.
      • Harwani Y.
      • Rai V.
      • et al.
      Fully covered self-expandable metal biliary stent for hemobilia caused by portal biliopathy.
      ,
      • So H.
      • Song T.J.
      • Lee D.
      • et al.
      Endoscopic treatment of recurrent bleeding from a portobiliary fistula with a fully covered self-expandable metal stent.
      ,
      • Layec S.
      • D’Halluin P.N.
      • Pagenault M.
      • et al.
      Massive hemobilia during extraction of a covered self-expandable metal stent in a patient with portal hypertensive biliopathy.
      ,
      • Kim S.Y.
      • Cho J.H.
      • Kim E.J.
      • et al.
      Successful hemostasis using a covered self-expandable metallic stent for spurting hemobilia in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer–induced portal biliopathy.
      Tonozuka et al
      • Tonozuka R.
      • Itoi T.
      • Sofuni A.
      • et al.
      Hemostasis using a fully covered self-expandable metal stent for marked bleeding from the bile duct following stent removal (with videos).
      reported a rare application of the SEMS in the rupture of a pseudoaneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of an SEMS for biliary bleeding tamponade due to an intratumoral pseudoaneurysm of the pancreas. SEMS insertion might be helpful in slowing bleeding or temporal hemostasis due to a rupture of the pseudoaneurysm, despite its dependence on the site of bleeding.
      • Tonozuka R.
      • Itoi T.
      • Sofuni A.
      • et al.
      Hemostasis using a fully covered self-expandable metal stent for marked bleeding from the bile duct following stent removal (with videos).
      We should consider various treatment options, including endoscopic, angiographic, and surgical procedures, because hemobilia can occur at any time, not only after endoscopic insertion of plastic/metallic stents but also during their extraction.
      • Tonozuka R.
      • Itoi T.
      • Sofuni A.
      • et al.
      Hemostasis using a fully covered self-expandable metal stent for marked bleeding from the bile duct following stent removal (with videos).
      ,
      • Goenka M.K.
      • Harwani Y.
      • Rai V.
      • et al.
      Fully covered self-expandable metal biliary stent for hemobilia caused by portal biliopathy.
      ,
      • Miyamoto H.
      • Tanaka K.
      • Nakamura F.
      • et al.
      Massive hemobilia following plastic stent removal in common bile duct cancer associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (with video).
      ,
      • Layec S.
      • D’Halluin P.N.
      • Pagenault M.
      • et al.
      Massive hemobilia during extraction of a covered self-expandable metal stent in a patient with portal hypertensive biliopathy.
      Removal of the SEMS is sometimes attempted because of stent dysfunction. However, we must consider the possibility of massive hemobilia. During SEMS removal, it is necessary to have a new SEMS at hand.

      Disclosure

      All authors disclosed no financial relationships.

      Acknowledgment

      We would like to thank Editage (www.editage.com) for English language editing.

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