If you don't remember your password, you can reset it by entering your email address and clicking the Reset Password button. You will then receive an email that contains a secure link for resetting your password
If the address matches a valid account an email will be sent to __email__ with instructions for resetting your password
Not infrequently, small duodenal carcinoids or neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are found during routine endoscopy. These tumors are located in the submucosal and mucosal layers. Although there are reports of managing small duodenal NETs with BL-EMR,
The author experienced 2 cases of immediate perforation after performing BL-EMR for small duodenal NETs. One of these patients needed surgical repair of the perforation, and the other was managed by endoclip closure of the perforation. In a pig model, regardless of saline solution injection, the full thickness of the duodenal wall was ligated in all attempts after band ligation.
The authors did not recommend BL-EMR in the duodenum because the risk of perforation would be unacceptably high.
In another ex vivo study, using fresh surgical human specimens, histologic evaluation revealed inclusion by the band ligator of the muscularis propria and serosa on the small bowel, the musclaris propria in the right colon segment, and the submucosa in the left colon segment.
proposed and first reported clip band ligation antireflux therapy. Using a multiband ligator device (Saeed 6-Shooter, Cook Medical, Winton Salem, NC, USA), he ligated 2 bands to the cardial mucosa and fixed with an endoclip underneath the bands. The bands are ligated to constrict the cardiac mucosa, and the clips are used to further secure the root of the pseudopolyp created by banding. No resection is needed, thus eliminating resection-related perforation risk.
The author borrowed the same rationale and proposes clip band ligation ablation (C-BLA) therapy (Fig. 1A) for managing small-bowel lesions and even colon submucosal lesions that need to be removed. The band ligator is placed around the submucosal lesion, creating a pseudopolyp and lifting the lesion away from the muscular layer (Fig. 1B). One or 2 endoclips are then placed underneath the band on the pseudopolyp “stalk” (Fig. 1C). The clip functions to further secure the band and to separate the lesion and the band from the muscular layer, increasing the chance of achieving complete ablation and decreasing the risk of perforation during autonecrosis of the banded lesion. No snare resection is needed, thus eliminating resection-related perforation risk.
The author reports a 56-year-old woman with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis and an 11-mm, biopsy-proven, duodenal-bulb low-grade NET or carcinoid tumor (Fig. 2; Video 1, available online at www.giejournal.org). She was referred by surgery for endoscopic ablation. The patient chose C-BLA over BL-EMR even though we disclosed that C-BLA was a novel method with a lack of tissue examination, unknown treatment efficacy, and need for follow-up endoscopy in 1 month with ablation base biopsy.
Using a multiband ligator device (Saeed 6-Shooter) and a single endoclip (Instinct clip, Cook Medical), we performed C-BLA in less than 1 minute (Figure 3, Figure 4, Figure 5, Figure 6, Figure 7). The patient did not experience any adverse events after the procedure. During follow-up endoscopy 1 month later, only postablation scarring and a 2-mm erosion were seen at the ablation site (Fig. 8). Extensive biopsy of the erosion and scar, including stacked biopsy to obtain submucosal tissue, was performed. Pathology results showed no evidence of residual NET cells. The author proposed that C-BLA therapy can be considered in the management of small-bowel and colon submucosal lesions that need to be removed, including neoplasms and bleeding vascular lesions. Endoclips with a long clip arm span, such as 16 mm, are recommended for C-BLA, with the aim of grasping the entire pseudopolyp "stalk." C-BLA is simple to perform and mitigates the risk of resection-related perforation. Compared with BLA without clipping, C-BLA adds improved security of band retention, provides better closure of the ablation margins, and further separates the banded lesion from the muscular layer, increasing the chance of achieving complete ablation and decreasing the risk of perforation during autonecrosis of the banded lesion.
Band ligation ablation, also called "banding without resection" or "band and leave," and over-the-scope clip (OTSC)-and-leave techniques have been reported in the management of duodenal carcinoid tumors and gastric stromal tumors.
reported 2 cases of gastric perforation after applying band ligation ablation to small stromal tumors (<5 mm). This highlights the importance of optimal band retention in band ligation ablation and clip augmentation in C-BLA during the process of pseudopolyp autonecrosis, margin healing, and closure.
Recently, endoscopic full-thickness resection devices (FTRD) are increasingly used to manage small-bowel and colon neoplasms.
OTSC is more expensive than a banding device and a regular clip. In addition, the large plastic hood of the OTSC and FTRD can make ablation or resection challenging if the tumor is located close to the pyloris, as in our case. Last, we have reported a case of small-bowel temporary obstruction after FTRD was applied to an ileocecal valve adenoma.
Performing FTRD in proximity to the pyloris can cause temporary gastric outlet obstruction or gastroparesis.
The risk of nodal metastasis of well-differentiated, <1-cm NET with a low Ki-67 index is very low, as in our case. When the tumor size is >1 cm or biopsy results show a non–well-differentiated NET with high Ki-67 index, EUS should be considered to rule out nodal status before any ablation or resection therapies are performed.
After any ablation therapy, there is risk of delayed recurrence at the ablation site. Long-term follow-up may be needed for these cases because the resection margins cannot be assessed as the original specimen is not resected or retrieved.